Lucca (/ ˈ l uː k ə / LOO-kə, Italian: ) is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea. The dream of the Republic … Lucca (lo͞ok`kä), city (1991 pop. As a result of the treaty, the territory of the Republic of Lucca including its overseas territories have been formally ceded to the Kingdom of Switzerland. Another proof of the importance of buccellato in the history of the city is the levy that the Republic of Lucca imposed in 1578 on its sale, the money obtained from this new tax were later used to rebuild the embankments of the river Serchio. The Lucchesi expelled him two years later, and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca hosts the annual Lucca Summer Festival. Dante’s Divine Comedy include many references to the great feudal families who had huge … In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo (captain of the people) named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1799 Lucca was joined to the Cisalpine Republic. Republic of Lucca, also called Luccan Republic, French République Lucquoise, Italian Repubblica Lucchese, republic established by Napoleon Bonaparte in Lucca and its environs on Dec. 27, 1801, after his second successful conquest of Italy, driving out the Austrians. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article Lucca was a frontier outpost on the northern boundary of the Republic. Procession of Santa Croce, on 13 September. This document is an official declaration of annexation of the Republic of Lucca by the Kingdom of Switzerland. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The 1805-1809 flag was the flag of the Principality of Lucca and Piombino … For almost 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. Top Gear filmed the episode 'series 17, episode 3' here. She was married on May...…. 87,100), capital of Lucca prov., Tuscany, N central Italy, near the Ligurian Sea. Lucca Republic. The Republic of Lucca was an ancient State of Tuscany which lasted from 1160 to 1805. (prigionieri di guerra) 60,[10] and it was usually referred to as PG 60 Lucca. Republic of Lucca, 1 Scudo 1743 'San Martino' (Saint Martin), silver coin in F, VF condition. There were many minor feudatories in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina; Tuscany in this time was a part of feudal Europe. In 1805 Napoleon made it a dukedom for his cousin Felice Bacciochi. For almost 500 years, Lucca was an independent republic. Republic of Lucca, also called Luccan Republic, French République Lucquoise, Italian Repubblica Lucchese, republic established by Napoleon Bonaparte in Lucca and its environs on Dec. 27, 1801, after his second successful conquest … Finally the French prevailed and granted a democratic constitution in the 1801. During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, the community being led by the Kalonymos family (which at some point during this time migrated to Germany to become a major component of proto-Ashkenazic Jewry). Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola, then seized by John, king of Bohemia. [11] Although it never had permanent structures and accommodation consisted of tents in an area prone to flooding, it housed more than 3,000 British and Commonwealth prisoners of war during the period of its existence. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune with a charter in 1160. First republic Edit It was handed over to the Germans on 10 September 1943, not long after the signing of the Italian armistice. The Holy Face of Lucca (or Volto Santo), a major relic supposedly carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742. There are many medieval, a few as old as the eighth century, basilica-form churches with richly arcaded façades and campaniles, Lucca is the birthplace of composers Giacomo Puccini (La Bohème and Madama Butterfly), Nicolao Dorati, Francesco Geminiani, Gioseffo Guami, Luigi Boccherini, and Alfredo Catalani. Republic of Lucca Lucca was the second largest Italian city-state (after Venice) with a republican constitution ("comune"). Shipping via international registered mail. Manufactures include textiles (especially silk), paper, and food products. Meanwhile, the Duchy of Parma had been assigned for life to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Napoleon. The Republic lasted from 1160 to 1805. In the hamlet of Colandi, to the right of the stream, there was the customs office set up to tax the transport of products that crossed the mountains to the north and which were brought to the various markets in the Province of Lucca. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, and after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, and painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.[9]. During the 10–11th centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. It is a commercial and industrial center and an agricultural market (olive oil, wine, and tobacco). In 1814 it was occupied by the Neapolitans, and later by the Austrians. Updates? https://www.britannica.com/place/Republic-of-Lucca, CRW Flags - Flag of Republic of Lucca, Tuscany, Italy. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 21:52. In 1817 it was given to Maria Luisa, widow of the King of Etruria, whose son Carlo Ludovico ceded it to Tuscany in 1847. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. It is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls.[4][5]. The walled city is encircled by Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi (vide Guglielmo Marconi), Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini, Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento (vide Risorgimento), and Viale Giosuè Carducci. Lucca (/ˈluːkə/ LOO-kə, Italian: [ˈlukka] (listen)) is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea. February 14th, 2013 Headsman. Since 2004, Lucca is home to IMT Lucca, a public research institution and a selective graduate school and part of the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy (Grandes écoles).[13]. This article is about the city in Italy. However, it is usually relegated to a mere footnote in history texts, if mentioned at all, so I made an effort to … The Republic of Lucca was set up by Napoleon on December 27, 1801. Traces of the amphitheatre may still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. Retrieved from "http://wappenwiki.org/index.php?title=Republic_of_Lucca&oldid=55418" Omissions? Flag of Lucca (1801-1805).svg 324 × 216; 452 bytes Lucca 1801-1805.gif 324 × 216; 1 KB Merchant Flag of the Republic of Lucca (13th … In June 1944 the prisoners were moved to Bagni di Lucca.[10]. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such … Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the 11th century, and came to rival the silks of Byzantium. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Mastino II della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, and then nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. [8] At one point, Lucca was plundered by Odoacer, the first Germanic King of Italy. It lasted less than four years; in June 1805 he granted Lucca to his sister Élisa Bonaparte as a principality, part of the new French Empire. In 1408, Lucca hosted the convocation intended to end the schism in the papacy. The walls encircling the old town remain intact, even as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The only reigning dukes of Lucca were Maria Luisa of Spain, who was succeeded by her son Charles II, Duke of Parma in 1824. Roberto Breschi, in his presantation: "Flags in Italy under Napoleon's pressure" at ICV 20 in Stockholm, reported about the Lucca Republic: The Republic used the flag reported by Jaume as 1801-1805 only from 1803. This bridge is important because historically the border line between the territory of the Republic of Lucca and the Estense Duchy passed here. It passes through the Bastions of Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, and San Donato; and over the gates (Porte): San Donato, Santa Maria, San Jocopo, Elisa, San Pietro, and Sant'Anna. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the early sixth century. After a being occupied, sold and pawned by several different Italian powers, the city was nominally liberated by Emperor Charles IV in the late 1360s. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, and came to rival the silks of Byzantium. In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna (1815), upon the death of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma in 1847, Parma reverted to Charles II, Duke of Parma, while Lucca lost independence and was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. During the Italian Social Republic, as a puppet state of the Germans, political prisoners, foreigners, common law prisoners and Jews were interned there, and it functioned as a concentration camp. In 1805, the Republic of Lucca became part of the French Empire. The main participants in the treaty were Alexander I, the King of Switzerland; and Guglielmo de' Medici, the then-Doge of Lucca. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke who minted his own coins. The research intends to acquire the interest of Lucca records kept in Spanish Archives and primarily the Archivo General de Simancas; to produce a database of instructions, reports and dispatches concerning major diplomatic missions at the courts of Madrid, Naples, Milan, with particular regard to the sixteenth and … Each of the four principal sides of the structure is lined with a different tree species than the others. The Bourbon Duchy of Lucca (1815–47), on the other hand, was a creation of the Congress of Vienna: having...…, Napoleon I, French general, first consul (1799–1804), and emperor of the French (1804–1814/15),...…, Élisa Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s eldest sister to survive infancy. For almost 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. Howeverer, already in 1805 the Republic of Lucca was converted into a monarchy by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as "Princess of Lucca". His biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. Detailed information about the coin 1 Scudo, Republic of Lucca, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, metal, weight, size, value and other numismatic data In 1942, during World War II, a prisoner-of-war camp was established at the village of Colle di Compito, in the municipality of Capannori, about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Lucca. Mauro Bolognini's 1958 film Giovani mariti with Sylva Koscina is set and was filmed in Lucca. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca . From 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy. Along with Venice and Genoa, Lucca was the only Italian city state, who was able to sustain a "democratic" government and its … Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. The Republic of Lucca … Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. The 2006 edition featured live performances by Eric Clapton, Placebo, Massive Attack, Roger Waters, Tracy Chapman, and Santana at the Piazza Napoleone. Corrections? By custom, the appellation "Most Serene" is an indicator of sovereignty (see also Serene Highness or Most Serene Highness for a sovereign prince); consequently "Most Serene Republic" emphasizes the sovereignty of the republic. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1548: Francesco Burlamacchi, Lucca republican. At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.[6][7]. It is also the birthplace of artist Benedetto Brandimarte. As part of Tuscany, it became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and finally part of the Italian State in 1861. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1805 Lucca was taken over by Napoleon, who put his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi in the place reserved for the "Queen of Etruria". A humanist patrician with a soft spot for Plutarch, Burlamacchi had orchestrated a bid to break away an independent federation of Tuscan cities — Florence, Pisa, and his own city of Lucca.. [citation needed]. Initially built as a defensive rampart, once the walls lost their military importance they became a pedestrian promenade, the Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street atop the walls linking the bastions. Country Italian Republic of Lucca Reign Henry III-V. (1039-1125) Denomination Denar Date Struck ND. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city of Lucca began to constitute itself an independent commune, with a charter in 1160. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. The city became a part of Tuscany in 1847 and later a part of Italy. At a certain point, Lucca and Venice merged together and formed the Northern Italian Republic… Detailed information about the coin 1 Soldo, Carlo Ludovico I, Republic of Lucca, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, metal, weight, size, value and other numismatic data Republic of Lucca synonyms, Republic of Lucca pronunciation, Republic of Lucca translation, English dictionary definition of Republic of Lucca. Mint Lucca Obv It is the capital of the Province of Lucca. Lucca was an important city and fortress even in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. And here is the Luccan Republic on a map: Central Europe after the Peace of Basel (1795) and of Campo Formio (1797) More History For other uses, see, Palaces, villas, houses, offices, and museums, List of World War II prisoner-of-war camps in Italy, List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy, "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011", "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018", "A Walled City in Tuscany Clings to Its Ancient Menu", "Ill-treatment of prisoners of war at Camp PG 60, Lucca, Italy, July to November 1942", "Church of Sant'Alessandro Maggiore | Lucca", "IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca - Scuola di Dottorato IMT Alti Studi di Lucca", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lucca&oldid=991027603, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Republic of Lucca was a historic state of Italy, which lasted from 1160 to 1805 on the central Italian peninsula. Republic of Lucca A small Italian city-state from 1100 until its dismemberment by Napoleon in 1799, the Republic of Lucca was for centuries capital of Tuscany, and rivalled Florence in greatness. The town includes a number of public squares, most notably the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, site of ancient Roman amphitheater; but also Piazzale Verdi; Piazza Napoleone'; and Piazza San Michele. [6] The rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state (after Venice) with a republican constitution ("comune") to remain independent over the centuries. On this date in 1548, Francesco Burlamacchi lost his head … for a united Italy? The Republic of Lucca was a small nation lead by Slimdude, and later bandeed together with Venice to form the NIR (Northern Italian Republic) As much of the beginnings of Lucca are unknown, Slimdude constructed several buildings and farms in Lucca, together with a small farm. The Republic of Lucca was a historic state of Italy, which lasted from 1160 to 1805 on the central Italian peninsula.. Its territory extended beyond the city of Lucca, reaching the surrounding countryside in the north-western part of today's Tuscany region, to the borders with Emilia-Romagna and Liguria.. Take a look at the photos to get an idea and as an integral part of the description. A city of northwest Italy west of Florence. Costume procession through the town's roads. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans (there are traces of an earlier Ligurian settlement in the 3rd century BC called Luk meaning marsh in which the name Lucca originated) and became a Roman colony in 180 BC. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina; Tuscany in this time was a part of feudal Europe. Lucca hosts the annual Lucca Comics and Games festival, Europe's largest festival for comics, movies, games and related subjects. The neighbouring Ligurian people had been strong allies of Hannibal and they were a fierce and independent "nation" not going to be trusted for many decades to come. Its official number was P.G. Most Serene Republic (Latin: Serenissima Respublica) is a title attached to a number of European states through history. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is famous for its intact Renaissance -era city walls . In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca. Republic of Lucca; Usage on la.wikipedia.org Res publica Lucensis; Metadata. 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