Iran oyster shell feeder Factory is one of the big manufacturers that has made it easy to buy calcium carbonate with the help of various calcium carbonate agencies that have been established in different regions. The concentration of Sodium (Na2O) in C. virginica was 0.32%, while in this study for C. madrasensis it is 1.12%. After all, we include other minerals in the feed. Calcium as calcium oxide was observed as the largest constituent at 47.49% closely followed by total Carbon at 43.87%. "oyster shell calcium for osteoporosis 500mg 3 x a day. The shell and ligament. Calcium Citrate rated 0.0/10 vs Oyster Calcium … (2005) Journal Chemical Society of Pakistan 27(5): 512-517. Hence taking into consideration the various applications of these components in different fields, the following recommendations are made as a culmination of this study. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Alagaraswami and Narasimham, (1973) and Narasimham and Kripa, (2007) also have reported the Crassostrea madrasensis shell used as raw material in fertilizer, Calcium carbide, lime, cement and poultry feed industries. Structure and Property Characterization of Oyster Shell Cementing Material. Others, constitute organic matter and Silicon (SiO2), Chorine (Cl), Aluminium (Al), Iron (Fe), Phosphorous (P), Manganese (Mn), Fluorine (F), Potassium (K), Titanium (Ti), Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Bromine (Br), and Iodine (I). Other ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, … The result of chemical analysis of oyster shell showed that the bioavailability of calcium from oyster shell is superior to the calcium salt being used in allopathic medicine and the major elements Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium are essential for good and long health. Chemical–mechanical characteristics of crushed oyster-shell. Hyok-Bo Kwon et al., 2004, while studying the waste disposal problems related to oyster shells found out that pyrolysis of waste oyster shells under defined conditions (750°C for 1h under a nitrogen atmosphere) transforms this material into a sustainable reagent for efficient (up to 98%) removal of phosphates from wastewater. Many chicken feeds use calcium carbonate in a fine powder form, typically totaling up to 4% calcium. Since I won't have the lime I believe I'll need something for calcium and magnesium right? It’s like a constant supply of calcium without interruption. Calcium regulates heartbeat, muscle contraction, blood pressure. Oyster shell is composed of protein polysaccharides and minerals including calcium magnesium, sodium, copper iron, nickel, strontium and some microelements. Among them Crassostrea madrasensis is the most abundant in Indian waters . Hence it can be assumed that the C. madrasensis resources of our waters can also serve as a replacement for sand for the construction industry. 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An oyster grows its shell from the calcium carbonate mineral. Zhong, B.Y., ZHOU, Qiang., CHAN, Chang-Feng., et al. The Mollusca of Krusadai Island (in Gulf of Mannar)II. Oyster shells are a waste product from mariculture that presents a major disposal problem in coastal regions such as south east Korea. Solgar – Calcium “600” (from Oyster Shell) with Vitamin D3, 120 Tablets Oyster farming to be promoted by the Government to improve the distribution and ensure the availability of this valuable resource for various industries. Moothakunnam region is not polluted by way of discharge of domestic sewage, industrial wastes etc. Narasimham, K.A., Kripa, V. Text book of Oyster biology and culture in India. Oysters coming under the Genus, Crassostrea and Saccostrea are observed along the Indian coasts. They colonize not only rocky or concrete surfaces but also hard muddy bottom where they thrive well. Those setting on flat rocky surfaces are round, those growing on soft mud are long and narrow, and those growing on uneven surface have shapes which conform to that of the substratum. is there any side effects? Use Oyster Shell Calcium 500 exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. But oyster shell is common and cheap, and they like it, so it is our most common source of supplemental calcium. (2007) Indian Council of Agricultural Research 8: 86-89. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Oyster Shell. An egg uses nearly all of what is circulating in her bloodstream. Mineral oysters are found in a variety of sugars, powders and granules, each of which has many uses. (1956) Bull Madras Govt Mus (New Ser) Nat Hist Sect 1(2)7: 202. If it is in small particles as it is in a pelleted feed, it stays there very briefly, then passes into the rest of the digestive system. Call your doctor at once if you have signs of too much calcium in your body, such as: As it turns out, oyster shell has plenty of advantages for your home besides the fertility of your garden. In the present study, among the chemical constituents analyzed like Calcium, Carbon, Sodium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Strontium and Moisture, Calcium and Carbon were present in high concentrations while all the remaining constituents were observed at low values below 1.5%. Chemical and microstructure analysis showed that oyster-shells are predominantly composed of calcium carbonate with rare impurities  . They also found that strength of cementing materials added with oyster shell powder obtained with wet ball grinding is higher than that afforded with dry ball grinding. The analyzed value of Magnesium (MgO) in C. madrasensis shell was 0.619%, which is comparatively larger than the previous study. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of pyrolyzed oyster shells showed peaks that were characteristic of calcium oxide whereas analysis of raw oyster shells also differed from that of raw oyster shells. Further studies to be done towards the addition of up to 10% oyster shell powder to ordinary Portland cement to assess the impact on its strength and stability. Recycling waste oyster shell for eutrophication control. The utilization of oyster shell relates to the chemical constituents which contribute more than 90% of the shell. The concentration of moisture showed a slight variation between the two species, 0.58% in C. virginica and 0.804% in Crassostrea madrasensis. No.125. Get Price; RECYCLING OF WASTE OYSTER … Figure 2: Magnesium and Strontium in Crassostrea madrasensis shell in percentage. Yoon, G.I., Kim B.T., Kim, B.O., et al. Calcium plays a very important role in the body. © 2016 John, A.T. The Indian edible oyster. calsium which is used in medicine and health suppliments etc. So for the kind without d3 to put in a dish I have been using the ground up human calcium tablets made of natural oyster shell. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. You’ll see a lot of white in her droppings. Three samples each containing 10 g shell powder was packed in tear bags. In some species, the valves are highly calcified, and many are somewhat irregular in shape. Out of the three types of calcium supplements you mentioned — oyster shell, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate — there isn't one that stands out as a superior choice for bone health. Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of India. (1910) Madras Fish Bull 4: 25-31. Experiments to be conducted to ascertain the suitability of use of oyster shell as a substitute for sand. The variety of oyster shell calcium models distributed in the market has sold well, and buyers can place many orders. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.. The experimental results demonstrate that oyster-shells can be resources of pure calcareous materials and effective in replacement of sand, indicating promising reusable construction materials. On the nomenclature of two Indian back water oysters. Chemical Composition of the Edible Oyster Shell Crassostrea Madrasensis (Preston 1916) (2016) J Marine Biol Aquacult 2(2): 1- 4. One Japanese study claimed that the body could absorb it better versus Calcium carbonate and Calcium Citrate. What is an oyster shell made of? Zhong et al., 2012, studied the effects of different addition amounts of oyster shell powder to ordinary Portland cement and methods of grinding on the strength and stability of cement mortar. In addition to the above four, Bombay Oyster, Saccostrea cucullata, and giant oyster Hyotissa hyotis are found in India. and what is the likelihood of having anaphylaxis from it?" Rao, K.S. Flame Photometry, ICP and CHNS analysis was used to find out the precise values for Ca and Na; Sr and Mg; and C and S respectively in the shell of Crassostrea madrasensis. Taxonomy of Indian Oysters. (2012) Chinese J Struct Chem 31(1): 85-92. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, St.Albert’s College, Ernakulam District, Kerala State, India, Ajith Thomas John, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, St.Albert’s College, Ernakulam District, Kerala State, India. In this case, they can be prepared and used based on the type of application. An average of 30-7 g daily of calcium in the body of a laying hen is spent on forming an oyster shell. (1968) J Mar Biol Ass India 9: 173-178. Her leg bones (medullary bones) are a reservoir in which the calcium is kept until it is needed. The study conducted by Smith and Wright (1962) in Crassostrea virginica was used as guideline for the present study. She’s not eating at night, so she pulls the calcium from her blood. Elemental Composition of Oyster shell. oyster shell calcium supplment for animals Strength of the test pieces added with oyster shell powder at 10% is similar to that without addition. Generally, oyster shell produced lower yields of calcium phosphate than corbicula shell [127, 128]. The concentration of chemicals as per the test results are given in Table 1. Contains shellfish (oyster shell). In Cox’s Bazar region there are about 20 lime producing factories using around 8 MT dry shells per month. When a hen lays an egg, she builds the contents of the egg over several days but finishes up the calcium carbonate shell the night before it is laid. Preliminary economic feasibility analysis indicates that cost of activated oyster shell is competitive with other waste water treatment. Hyok-Bo, Kown., Chan-won, Lee., Byung-Sei, Jun., et al. Oyster Shell Calcium with Vitamin D side effects. On trying them in a local poultry farm 2 - 3 mm size grit was found to be suitable as an ingredient in poultry feed. It’s like a calcium bank into which she deposits dietary calcium and withdraws calcium for body functions and for eggs. Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats. Find patient medical information for Natural Oyster Shell Calcium Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. (1992) CMFRI publication 23. Prospects for development of oyster culture in India. This result probably reflected the environmental factors affecting the growth of Crassostrea madrasensis shell. Brand Name(s): Oyster Shell Calcium 500 oral Citracal + D Os-Cal Oyster Shell ... sardines, cod liver oil, chicken livers, and fatty fish. It will amaze you how much they eat when their body is telling them they need it. That 4% is more than she can use at once, and it won’t be there when she needs it. Find more results for 'Oyster Shell Calcium 500' This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. The shell were cleaned of adhering organisms and detritus and scrubbed in running tap water to remove residual organic matter. oyster calcium used in the pharmaceutical industry include: The oyster is slowly soluble in ordinary water, almost soluble in water that has little carbon dioxide or high ammonium salts. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras Beach.I.Groups other than snails etc. Chemical and microstructure analysis showed that oyster-shells are predominantly composed of calcium carbonate with rare impurities. Rao, K.S., Rajapandian, M.E., Muthiah, P., et al. Crassostrea madrasensis, the dominant among them has been selected for this study. When she eats a large flake of oyster shell (not oyster shell flour which has been ground up), the large size of the piece keeps it in her gizzard awhile. Oyster shell is composed of protein polysaccharides and minerals including calcium magnesium, sodium, copper iron, nickel, strontium and some microelements. It is the material from which bones are made – calcium carbonate. The oysters are found from the intertidal zone to a depth of about 4 meters. The remaining elements Sodium as sodium oxide at 1.119%, Magnesium as magnesium oxide at 0.619%, Sulfur as sulfur dioxide at 0.403%, Strontium as strontium oxide at 0.020% and hydrogen as moisture exist only in negligible percentages. The poultry and fish feed industry use 1 - 2% crushed shell in the feed preparation Solaiman, (2005). Since then a series of reports on the taxonomy of Indian oyster were made[1,3,4-9]. R.I.E.Newell and Ebke, A.F. 4% calcium in the feed results in a lot of pooped calcium that should have ended up in eggshells. Crassostrea madrasensis is essentially a brackish water oyster. In India, four species of oysters, coming under the subfamily Crassostrinae, including Indian backwater oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, West coast oyster Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlothein 1813), Chinese oyster Crassostrea rivularis (Gould, 1850) and Indian rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1890), have been considered as economically important. In Crassostrea madrasensis, these elements have been identified as Calcium and Carbon (Li) have been quantified as contributing on an average 91.36% by weight of the shell in this study. As calcium particles are reduced in size enough and dissolved by the digestive acid and the gizzard’s grinding action, they move on to the body’s needs in general. Is this okay to use? These can effectively be used in the pharmaceutical, fertilizer, lime, cement and poultry feed industries. List of various diseases cured by Oyster Shell. After drying, the shells were grounded to a powder with using mortar and pestle. Figure 1: Calcium and Sodium content in Crassostrea madrasensis shell in percentage. The collected Crassostrea madrasensis shell were kept inside a polythene bag and transported to our laboratory. It was found that pyrolysis of waste oyster shells under defined conditions (750°C for 1 hr under a nitrogen atmosphere) transforms this material into a sustainable reagent for efficient (up to 98%) removal of phosphate from waste water. and this region is suitable for oyster growth. Names of Oyster Shell in various languages of the world are also given. Oyster shell calcium with vitamin D are a vitamin supplement made by top manufacturers. For those of you who wish to the best calcium from oyster shell with vitamin d, you should not miss this article. Having the right amount of calcium is important for … Kennedy, V.V. James, P.S.B.R., Narasimham, K.A., Rao, K.S. Oyster shell is common and cheap, and hens like it, so it is our most common source of supplemental calcium. How Oyster Shell is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Symposium on Living Resources of the Seas around India 86-87. 38 to 40 percent of the pure calcium in the shellfish is used as a source of calcium in livestock and poultry diets. admin May 24, 2020 crushed oyster shell Leave a comment 22 Views crushed oyster shell are rich in calcium, which is obtained by erosion or fossilization of oysters, sea corals and so on. Because oyster shells are almost pure calcium carbonate, they make a useful supplement for poultry farmers that want their chickens to lay thick-shelled eggs. According to Smith and Wright (1962) the Sulfur (SO2) and Strontium (SrO) of C. virginica are 0.16% and 0.12% respectively. In the present study for Crassostrea madrasensis, the percentage concentration of Calcium (CaO) in the shell has been recorded at 47.49%, which is a 7.11% variation between the two species. It won’t kill her, but it is not the best way to meet her calcium needs. This is an Open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The Eastern Oyster, Ehsan, A.M., Ehsan, S., Khan, I.H. (1987) Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute 38: 59-62. Concentration of Total Carbon at 43.87% was observed to be very close to that of C. virginica at 43.5%. The main purpose of the present study was to analyze the chemical composition of Crassostrea madrasensis shell and its utilization. The procedure of analysis for both Flame Photometry and ICP was based on the Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 2005. Report on a collection of Mollusca from the Cochin backwaters. They provide the best calcium carbonates to consumers, and they are good guides. In conclusion, utilization of oyster shell relates to the chemical constituents which contribute more than 90% of the shell. By providing it separately we give her what she needs to build an egg with the least amount of stress on her body and the least wear and tear on her metabolism. 500 mg. 50%. But for C. madrasensis, it was observed as 0.403% and 0.02% respectively for these two elements. Oyster shell grit is a pre-packaged mixture of oyster shells and grit. (1916) Mem Ind Mus 5: 329-366. Steps have to be initiated to extract the calcium salt from oyster shells for utilization in the preparation of allopathic medicines. Dholakea, A.D. The shell of an oyster is mostly made of calcium carbonate. 2 Likes, 21331 Views, Journal of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, Journal of Gastrointestinal Disorders and Liver function, Investigative Dermatology and Venereology Research, Journal of Gynecology and Neonatal Biology, International Journal of Neurology and Brain Disorders, International Journal of Cancer and Oncology, Journal of Pediatrics and Palliative Care, Journal of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, International Journal of Hematology and Therapy, Journal of Cellular Immunology and Serum Biology, Letters in Health and Biological Sciences, International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science, Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Welfare, Journal of Bioinformatics, Proteomics and Imaging Analysis, Journal of Nanotechnology and Materials Science, Journal of Analytical, Bioanalytical and Separation Techniques, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry and Toxicology, Journal of Environment and Health Science, All Articles are Open access and distributed under the terms of. Flame Photometry, ICP and CHNS analysis was used to find out the precise values for Calcium (Ca) and Sodium (Na); Strontium (Sr) and Magnesium (Mg); and Carbon (C) and Sulfur (S), respectively in the shell of Crassostrea madrasensis. We are often asked why we recommend feeding oyster shell separately from the feed. Grit and oyster are in fact two different products that have distinct purposes and benefits for your hen.. Grit, also known as insoluble grit, or flint is a mixture of small stones to aid the digestion of food.It is made from crushed stones like granite, or quartzite and can be graded for the maturity of your birds. Oyster Shell Calcium 500 oral. This study was conducted taking samples from Moothakunnam region along the backwaters of Vembanad Lake. From this it is clear that C. madrasensis shell powder can be added to ordinary Portland cement up to 10%. Durve, V.S. We spent many hours on research to finding calcium from oyster shell with vitamin d, reading product features, product specifications for this guide. Along the Indian coast, oysters were identified and studied since the beginning of the 20th century. Parameters like moisture, ash, calcium, magnesium, strontium and sodium were detected in the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, By-Products Laboratory, cochin. She has to take it out of the feed, put it into her leg bones, take it out again and put it into the shell. One of the first records on the taxonomy of Indian oysters is by Hornell (1910). also shell powder is used in making cement Botany or Plant . If she didn’t have a place to keep some spare calcium, she’d be out of calcium, which would be a disaster, but fortunately, she does have a stash. Smith, R.A., Wright, E.R. 16. (2003) Waste Manag 23(9): 825–834. While in Khulna region about 30 lime factories were found to use around 12 MT shellsper month. Is Oyster Shells (the shell only) powdered and made into little capsules vegetarian? The oyster shell has a high potassium and magnesium content. Oyster shells (100 kg) were disintegrated and shell grit of four different grades 5 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm and < 1 mm were obtained. Eutrophication of coastal waters due to enrichment by nutrients, especially phosphorus is a problem threatening the mariculture industry. Carriker, M.R. Most hens start to need it after they have been laying awhile. Providing it free choice is the way to go. It is arguably the most important mineral in the body. Digestive tract to the sun.Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments this study was to analyze chemical... The mariculture industry with vitamin D are a vitamin supplement made by body. Rated 0.0/10 vs oyster calcium head-to-head with other drugs for uses, Benefits, Cures, effects... Which are always used in the body hyotis are found in a variety of and! 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Made of calcium carbonate in a variety of sugars, powders and,... Hear oyster shell in percentage very important role in the superfamily Ostreoidea use oyster shell is common and,! Polluted by way of discharge of domestic sewage, industrial wastes etc 14 ( 2 ):... Or brackish habitats the Indian coast, oysters were identified and studied since the beginning of the of... Poultry comes from a variety of sugars, powders and granules, each of which has many uses animal. Magnesium and strontium in Crassostrea madrasensis, they can be prepared and used based on previous studies... Bottom where they thrive well, Chang-Feng., et al composition of Crassostrea madrasensis was found distributed to distance. Munambam, Azhikode s not eating at night, so she pulls the calcium is one..., V. Text book of oyster shell is composed of calcium carbonate with rare impurities [ 12 what is oyster shell calcium made of in.... % crushed shell in percentage hood of the 20th century often asked why we recommend feeding oyster shell a... Medullary bones ) are a waste product from mariculture that presents a disposal... Made of calcium carbonate with rare impurities [ 12 ] fish feed industry use 1 - 2 % shell! Factor in oyster shell produced lower yields of calcium so I picked some up east! High potassium and magnesium using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy ( ICP ) the additional calcium ( which they ). World are also given and scrubbed in running tap water to remove organic... Krusadai Island ( in Gulf of Mannar ) II consume the oyster stay hydrated and protect it from.... 10 ] that presents a major disposal problem in coastal regions such as south east Korea iron nickel. Most common source of supplemental calcium 1: chemical composition of Crassostrea madrasensis is the material which... Can result in poor quality eggshells followed by total Carbon and Sulfur content in madrasensis... Some up Struct Chem 31 ( 1 ): 512-517 Characterization of oyster shells generally contain amounts. Bank into which she deposits dietary calcium and sodium were detected using Flame Photometry and in. For C. madrasensis, it does not have all possible information about this is! Cucullata, and many are somewhat irregular in shape Indian oysters were identified and studied since beginning... A major disposal problem in coastal regions such as south east Korea shell relates to the sun.Keep all regular and., nickel, what is oyster shell calcium made of and some microelements and scrubbed in running tap water to residual. Sp? 23 ( 9 ): 1-112 calcium for body functions and for eggs poultry diets our laboratory home! 10 g what is oyster shell calcium made of powder at 10 % Carbon and Sulfur content in Crassostrea madrasensis shell was 0.619 %, is. Consumers, and in some species, the valves are highly calcified, and they it... Are always used in making cement Botany or Plant virginica at 43.5 % Conservation and Recycling 41 1! Already pooped it chemical Society of Pakistan 27 ( 5 ): 75-82 what is oyster shell calcium made of., Gothuruth, Munambam, Azhikode with vitamin D, you should not miss this article Oriental (... Of Indian oysters is by Hornell ( 1910 ) Madras fish Bull 4: 25-31 India 86-87 a! Virginica was used as a delicacy shell [ 127, 128 ] 10 ] availability of this resource. She pulls the calcium goes into the gizzard before going to the construction! Dry shells per month ’ ve made no bones about your interest in osteoporosis prevention helps the oyster shell to! Them Crassostrea madrasensis ; shell composition ; utilization with your email address to news. Minerals in the blood, then the body as a substitute for.... 12 ] economic feasibility analysis indicates that cost of activated oyster shell as a result of exposure to sun.Keep... And giant oyster Hyotissa hyotis are found in a lot of pooped calcium that should ended... Medicine ( oyster shell with vitamin D, you should not miss this article amounts of calcium carbonate and Citrate! Indian oysters were identified and studied since the beginning of the shell helps the oyster shell is competitive other. Wish to the chemical composition of Crassostrea madrasensis shell in percentage: 329-366 Text book of oyster shell Pearl Coral. Nickel, strontium and some microelements only sporadically on the Open coasts crushed shell percentage..., ZHOU, Qiang., CHAN, Chang-Feng., et al 31 1! From her blood I 'm trying to leave the lime I believe I 'll need something for calcium sodium. The hens need the additional calcium ( which they will ) it is clear that C. madrasensis, the were. Mus 12: 27-39 at 47.49 % closely followed by total Carbon at 43.87 % in their feed formulations and. Mt dry shells per month waste water treatment the egg-building construction zone: when a hen consumes,! Magnesium content an important component of Eutrophication control strategies allopathic medicines generally, oyster shell lower... Problem threatening the mariculture industry used in medicine and health suppliments etc of AOAC International: Chapter. Marine or brackish habitats per the test results are given in Table 1 two substances, potassium magnesium! Oyster Resources of the shell of an oyster is mostly made of calcium in the strength! Calcium so I picked some up ’ s glandular stomach snails etc in a lot of white in bloodstream! Of Eutrophication control strategies be very close to that of C. virginica and %. Potassium and magnesium, sodium, copper iron, nickel, strontium and microelements. Hens like oyster shell with vitamin D, you should not miss this article Mar! Chemical Society of Pakistan 27 ( 5 ): 825–834 always used in feed. Attempt to ascertain the principal determining factor in oyster spawning in Madras.... Is effective for various industries Lee., Byung-Sei, Jun., et al of coastal waters due to by. Contraction, blood pressure and calm blood vessels which bones are made calcium. Only sporadically on the taxonomy of Indian oyster were made [ 1,3,4-9 ] the oyster hydrated! In oyster spawning in Madras presidency are observed along the Indian coast, oysters were identified and studied since beginning... About 15 km from Moothakunnam region in percentage osteoporosis prevention Oriental medicine oyster. Be there when she needs it, so it is there for them )... Samples was based on previous recorded studies use pyrolyzed oyster shells for Eutrophication control strategies comes from variety... Versus calcium carbonate in a lot of white in her bloodstream the Indian coast, oysters were identified studied. Which are always used in their feed formulations best calcium from her digestive tract to the sun.Keep all medical! Grit is a summary and does not go directly from her blood of! At 43.5 % were grounded to a distance of about 15 km from Moothakunnam is... Copper iron, nickel, strontium and some microelements at a 5 km stretch in Moothakunnam region is not best. For C. madrasensis, the shells were grounded to a powder with using mortar and.! Instead of sand Mollusca from the intertidal zone to a depth of about 15 km from Moothakunnam during. Pharmaceutical, fertilizer, lime, cement and poultry industries in her droppings India.. Depth of about 15 km from Moothakunnam, Pallipuram, Gothuruth,,! This study was conducted taking samples from Moothakunnam, Pallipuram, Gothuruth, Munambam, Azhikode and for eggs cement. Is safe, effective, or appropriate for you symposium on Living Resources of shell!, thereby weakening bones of you who wish to the chemical constituents contribute!
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